Natural and Geographical
Location and Areas
Luzhou is located on the southeast of Sichuan province, the junction area of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing. Eastward, Luzhou is close to Chongqing City; Southward, It borders Guizhou Province and Yunnan province; westward, it is close to Yibin City; northward, it connects Zigong City and Neijiang City. Luzhou has a distance of 267km to the Provincial capital Chengdu City. The geographical coordinates of Luzhou are North Latitude 27°39′~～29°20′and East Longitude 105°08′41″～~106°28′, with the west - east width of 121.64km, the north-south length of 181.84km, and the total area of 12243km2. Luzhou is situated at the center location of Chengdu-Guiyang-Chongqing line, intersection of the Yangtze River and Tuojiang River, which is the necessary passageway for southeast Sichuan to go out and southwest Chongqing to go out to Southeast Asia.
Luzhou is subtropical humid climate zone, and the southern mountain areas have a clear three-dimensional climate. In Luzhou, temperature is relatively high, sunshine is suffiecient, rainfall is abundant, and the four seasons are distinctive. In Luzhou, the frost - free period is long, temperature, light, and water are in the same season, and the monsoon climate is obvious. In Luzhou, spring and autumn are warm, summer is hot, and winter is not so cold. Whereas influenced by the topography of the Sichuan Basin, there are many thunderstorms in summer and continuous rainy weather in winter in Luzhou. In Luzhou, there are many sligh fog days in a year, and seldom heavy wind appears, it is often slight wind with velocity of 0~2m/s.
The average temperature of Luzhou is 17.5─18.0℃ in one year, and the temperature changes from 16.8 to 18.6℃ between years, with the gap of 1.8℃。 In one year, Luzhou has more than 300days of freeze free period, with few snowy days, which is suitable for crops with long growth period.
Luzhou is situated in the transitional zone between the southern margin of Sichuan basin and the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, where the northern terrain is low while the south is relatively high. The Northern Luzhou is river valley, low hills, and large pieces of flatlands, where is a land of fish and rice. The southern Luzhou connects the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which is the north end of Loushan Mountain, where the hills are low, the rivers are deep, the valleys are sharp, and the forest mineral resources are aboundant, with altitude of 240 meters to 520 meters. In Hejiang County, the surface of Yangtze River is 203m above the sea level, which is the lowest point of the whole Luzhou City. In Xuyong County, the peak of Liangzi Mountain is 1902m above the sea level, which is the highest point of the whole Luzhou City.
Luzhou is located in the connection position between the southeast Sichuan ridge Valley region and south of the Daloushan Mountain, the transitional zone between the southern margin of Sichuan basin and the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, which has both the hilly area in the basin and the mountainous terrain around the basin. The general topographical feature of Luzhou is the northern part is lower and the southern part is higher. Taking the Yangtze River as the base of erosion, it is gradually tilted from south to north, and the direction of the mountain range is in line with the direction of the tectonic line, with east-western, noth-western, and north-eastern expansion. Generally, taking the line of Jiang’an—Naxi—Hejiang as boundary-line, the south side is middle and low mountains and the north side is undulating topography. In Hejiang County, the surface of Yangtze River is 203m above the sea level, which is the lowest point of the whole Luzhou City. In Xuyong County, the Peak of Liangzi Mountain is 1902m above the sea level, which is the highest point of the whole Luzhou City. The terrain of the whole city can be roughly divided into four types:
Northern Hilly & broad valley region: including Luxian County, Jiangyang District, Longmatan District, Naxi Distrcit and the part of Hejiang County which is located in the north side of the Yangtze River. This area is the southern edge of the hilly region of the Sichuan Basin, with 18.6% area of the total area of Luzhou. Here, the altitude is mostly 250~400m, and the highest is Wanshou Mountain with elevation of 757m. Changgang Mountain is forest, and the shallow hilly area is mostly farmland where is the one of the main agricultural areas of the whole Luzhou City.
Southern middle and low mountainous area: including Xuyong County and most areas of Gulin County. This area is located on the southern margin of Sichuan Basin, with 38.6% area of total area of Luzhou. In this area, the average altitude is about 800m, and the highest location is the Peak of Liangzi Mountain with 1902m above the sea level. In this area, the topography is plain, with deep and rich soil, where is also one of the main agricultural areas of Luzhou City.
Central hilly and low mountain area: on the south side of the Yangtze River, the topography is hilly and low mountain area, including a few places of Luxian County, part of Jiangyang District, Hejiang County, most area of Naxi District, and northern part of Xuyong, Gulin County, with 41.5% area of the total area of Luzhou City. In this area, the mountains are generally 500-1000m high, and the highest mountain is the Axe Mountain in Gulin County, with height of 1895m. The only two existing virgin forests-- Fubao Forest, Huangjing Forest, and the Bamboo Forest are in this area. The hilly area is mostly farmland and the remaining is orchard and tea garden.
River valley area: Due to the alluvial and accumulation of the river, several terraces are formed along the both sides of rivers such as the Yangtze River, Tuojiang River, with 1.3% area of the total area of Luzhou City. The class one & two terraces are Quaternary fluvial alluvial deposit, with width of 500-1000m, elevation of below 250m, relative elevation difference of less than 30 meters, depth of 15-20m, which is the concentrated distribution areas of vegetables, sugar cane and longan of the whole Luzhou. The class three & four terraces are Quaternary modern ice water sediment with elevation of 250-300m, which is the concentrated production areas of sugar cane and litchi of the whole city.